Hydrolysed Collagen (animal sourced)
The department of dermatology in the University of Kiel, Germany conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 69 women aged 35-55 years were given Hydrolysed Collagen (Bovine sourced) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, skin elasticity in the hydrolysed collagen dosage group showed a statistically significant improvement in comparison to the placebo group. With regard to skin moisture and skin evaporation, a positive influence of hydrolysed bovine collagen treatment was also observed. (1)
Bovine sourced Hydrolysed Collagen is also shown to stimulate collagen in the skin and protect skin from the ageing process. Hydrolysed Collagen is shown to have a stimulatory effect on skin tissue, increasing expression levels of the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in skin, Type I collagen. A study conducted in the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, shows that after 4 weeks of daily ingestion, Bovine Hydrolysed Collagen resulted in a significant increase of collagen synthesis in skin (up to FOURFOLD). Skin fibroblasts (the cells within the dermis layer of skin which produce collagen) were also shown to increase in volume and activity. (2)
Another German University based double-blind, placebo-controlled study, showed oral intake of Bovine sourced Hydrolysed Collagen reduced skin wrinkles and had positive effects on dermal matrix synthesis. 114 woman aged 45-65 years were given Hydrolysed Collagen (Bovine sourced) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks the Hydrolysed Collagen group had a significantly reduced eye wrinkle volume varying between 20-49.9%. Pro-collagen type I content was also increased by 65% and elastin by 18% (3)
Studies show the best way to maintain moist, beautiful skin is to nourish it from the inside out. As we age, it is important to replenish diminishing stores of Hyaluronic Acid, because Hyaluronic Acid is one of the skin’s most important components for hydration and moisture retention. And without the proper levels of Hyaluronic Acid in the upper layers of the epidermis, your skin appears dull and wrinkled.
Researchers at Toho University have found ingested Hyaluronic Acid supplementation to be directly correlated to measured increases in skin moisture, increased skin smoothness, and amelioration of wrinkles. A double blind study was carried out wherein 35 subjects, who frequently suffer from dry, rough skin were given either a dietary hyaluronic acid supplement or a placebo over a 4-week period. The results showed that the group who had ingested Hyaluronic Acid had a significant increase in skin moisture. Microscopic skin surface analysis also showed an increase in skin smoothness and lessening of wrinkles. (4)
In a study of non-Japanese subjects, dietary intake of chicken comb enzymatic decomposer containing HA (W-HA; mean M.W.: 2,500, Will Search Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Japan) 280 mg per day for 30 days significantly increased skin moisture and pH in a placebo-controlled single-blind clinical trial in the People’s Republic of China. (5)
Furthermore, HA dietary supplements are expected to be effective anti-aging supplements because an American ABC News program, which aired in November 2002, investigated the key to longevity in a specific Japanese village was their HA-rich diet (6)
An absorption study by Balogh et al. in 2008 investigated the uptake into bloodstream and tissues in two animal models after oral ingestion of radioactively labeled, high molecular-weight HA, similar to that used in some dietary supplements. *Totally Derma® contains low-molecular weight, (more highly absorbed) therefore this lends to useful discussion points! They found evidence for uptake of radioactively labeled HA into tissues, especially connective tissues, after oral administration to animals. This reviewed HA being potentially absorbed via the lymphatic system. (7)
Another study at Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, Faculty of Pharmacy, supported that all Molecular Weight HA are absorbed via the lymphatic system. (8),
Grape Seed Extract
Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature ageing, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins. Research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of healthy skin because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have also shown that Grape Seed Extract helps to protect the skin from sun damage (9)
Green Tea Extract
A 12-week, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 60 women found that Green Tea Catechins (Catechins are the active polyphenol in green tea) are able to improve skin characteristics, including elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water content. Additionally, less UV radiation damage was seen in the group that was supplemented with green tea catechins. The study also showed that after 12 weeks, green tea extract boosted oxygen flow to the skin, which peaked 30 minutes after ingestion. When skin circulation is improved, skin health is also improved, which was shown in this study. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women. (10)
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid is a water- and fat-soluble antioxidant that is capable of regenerating other antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E. It therefore exerts numerous anti-inflammatory effects in the body and skin which assists in repair and maintenance. (11 Alpha lipoic acid research was done on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro (test tube) in cell-culture systems. The results showed that, when taken orally, Alpha Lipoic Acid helps to prevent cellular damage via its antioxidant properties. (12) By protecting fibroblasts (the cells which produce collagen in the skin) this helps to slow down the ageing process in the skin and stimulate repair.
Zinc is vital to the functioning of more than 300 hormones and enzymes. (13) One of the most important of these is copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme associated with longevity and protection against oxidative stress.(14) Skin is a major target of oxidative stress due to various damaging elements in the outer environment (such as UV damage) and various processes within skin itself (such as aging & exercise). The most major contributor to skin ageing and wrinkling is oxidative stress. (15) Therefore zinc is a vital component in skin anti-ageing.
Manganese is required for the activation of prolidase, an enzyme that functions to provide the amino acid, proline, for collagen formation in human skin cells (16) Manganese is therefore essential in the synthesis of skin collagen.
Copper is also essential for healthy collagen and elastin production. Studies clearly show that the synthesis of mature elastin and collagen take place and are controlled by the availability of copper.(17) A lack of copper can induce defective crosslinking of collagen and elastin.(18) This can cause problems such as premature ageing and wrinkling of the skin.
- Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2014;27(1):47-55. doi: 10.1159/000351376. Epub 2013 Aug 14. Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Proksch E, Segger D, Degwert J, Schunck M, Zague V, Oesser S.
- JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD J Med Food 14 (6) 2011, 618–624Collagen Hydrolysate Intake Increases Skin Collagen Expressionand Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 ActivityVivian Zague, Vanessa de Freitas, Marina da Costa Rosa, Georgia Alvares de Castro, Ruy G. Jaeger, and Glaucia M. Machado-Santelli.
- Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2014;27(3):113-9. doi: 10.1159/000355523. Epub 2013 Dec 24.Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis.Proksch E1, Schunck M, Zague V, Segger D, Degwert J, Oesser S.
- Aesthetic Dermatology Vol. 12 109-120, 2002: Clinical Effects of dietary hyaluronic acid on dry, rough skin. Sato T, Sakamato O, Odanaka W, Yoshida K, and Urishibata, O
- Terashita T, Shirasaka N, Kusuda M, Wakayama S. Chemical composition of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid from (chicken) and maintaining the moisture effect of ski by a clinical test. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agri of Kinki University. 2011;44:1–8. (in Japanese)
- Bucci LR, Turpin AA. Will the real hyaluronan please stand up? J Appl Nutr. 2004;54:10–33.
- J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 10582–10593, Absorption, Uptake and Tissue Affinity of High-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronan after Oral Administration in Rats and Dogs, Lajos Balogh, Andras Polyak, Domokos Mathe, Reka Kiraly, Juliana Thuroczy, Marian Terez, Gyozo Janoki, Yaoting Ting, Luke R. Bucci, Alexander G. Schauss
- Pharmacological Reports 2012, 64, 428.437, Preclinical pharmacokinetics of radiolabelled Hyaluronan, Milan Laznicek, Alice Laznickova, Dagmar Cozikova1
- J Med Food. 2003 December 6(4):291-9. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y
- J Nutr. 2011 Jun;141(6):1202-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.136465. Epub 2011 Apr 27.Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.Heinrich U, Moore CE, De Spirt S, Tronnier H, Stahl W.
- British Journal of Dermatology, October 2003, pages 841–849; and Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, October 2001, pages 578–582
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, April 2002, pages 133–166
- Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jul 15;125(2):142-4. Zinc: the biology and therapeutics of an ion.Prasad AS.
- Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Mar;126(3):365-79. Superoxide dismutase evolution and life span regulation.Landis GN, Tower J.
- Biomed Pharmacother 1999 May;53(4):181-92 Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress–new approaches for their evaluation.Kohen R.
- Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2000;52(2):149-155. The mechanism of daunorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis.Muszynska A, Palka J, Gorodkiewicz E.
- Ciba Found Symp. 1980;79:163-82.Copper and the synthesis of elastin and collagen.Harris ED, Rayton JK, Balthrop JE, DiSilvestro RA, Garcia-de-Quevedo M.
- Arteriosclerosis. 1986 Jan-Feb;6(1):98-104.Induction of increased collagen and elastin biosynthesis in copper-deficient pig aorta.Hill KE, Davidson JM.